Hui Nationality, short for Hui, has a population of 9.8 million and is one of the most populous and widely distributed ethnic minorities in China. In terms of politics, economy and culture, many outstanding figures emerged in the history of the Hui Nationality, which made positive contributions to the people's life and production construction at that time.
History of Hui Nationality
In the early 13th Century, millions of Muslims migrated to China from central Asia, Persia, and Arabia, either voluntarily or forcibly. This happened during the western expedition of Mongol Army. As craftsmen, merchants, scholars, officials, and religious leaders, they spread to many parts of the country and settled down, mainly to engage in animal husbandry. They are the same as the Hui people in Anxi, Xinjiang, and are part of the ancestors of today's Hui people.
Distribution of Hui Nationality
Hui Nationality is a minority ethnic group with a total population of 9.816 million (in 2000, excluding Taiwan province), distributed in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region is the main settlement area, with a population of 1.8625 million, accounting for 18.9 percent of the country's total. In addition, the areas with more than 200,000 Hui population are Beijing, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, Anhui, Shandong, Henan, Yunnan, Gansu and Xinjiang.
Language and Character
Contemporary Hui people speak Chinese, and different dialects are spoken in different regions. In the early days of the Hui people's Eastward Migration, Arabic, Persian and Chinese were used simultaneously. In the middle of Ming Dynasty, with the rise of Sutra education, there appeared Sutra language and children's brocade. The Hui people, who are mixed with other ethnic groups, also use other languages and are influenced by their cultures. For example, the Hui people in Sipsongpanna, Yunnan Province, still use Dai language, and wear Dai clothing. In addition, many Hui people in Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang speak Mongolian, Uygur or Kazak.
Islam has always played an important role in the formation and development of the Hui Nationality. Specifically, according to the rules of Islam, Hui people must keep the six beliefs: the faith in Allah (god) is the core of the six beliefs, that is, the belief that Allah is unique, the creation of the universe, the sun, the moon and the stars and everything that rules the universe. Believe in the god, that is, there is a wonderful world in addition to this world. The fairies are created by god, without gender, without age and without children, and according to god's will, they manage all turnover, good and evil, natural phenomena in heaven and earth. In addition to the Koran, great importance is attached to the Hadith. The Hadith is a record of Muhammad's words and deeds. It believes that the universe and all life will be destroyed one day and that Allah will resurrect all life. People can be resurrected after they die. It is the belief that the length of your life, the rich and the poor, the good and the evil, the ugly and the beautiful, is determined by god in your lifetime.
Hui are widely distributed. This custom is not entirely consistent. For example, the Hui people in Ningxia prefer to eat noodles, noodles and rice. The Hui people from Gansu and Qinghai like to eat wheat, corn, highland barley and potatoes as a stable daily food. Grasses (cake of flour with salt) and Sanzi are special food favored by Hui people all over the country.
According to the rules of Islam, Hui people are forbidden to eat pigs, horses, donkeys, mules, dogs and all dead animals and animals' blood. They are forbidden to eat all kinds of ugly animals and birds, including cattle, sheep, camels and chickens. In daily life, Hui people do not smoke or drink alcohol, but they especially like drinking tea and serving guests with tea. As a result of dispersing each place, formed the different tea drinking custom. North Hui Nationality Area like the pot tea, while Yunnan Hui people like baked tea. Lei tea is quite popular among Hunan Hui Nationality. Cup tea is a special hobby of Hui people in Northwest China. The most representative is the "Babao Covered Bowl Tea ". Babao (8 treasures) includes tea, rock sugar, Chinese wolfberry, walnut, sesame, jujube, longan, raisins (or dried apple) and so on.
Hui women generally wear white round caps and headgear. Whether in Quanzhou, Guangzhou, Hainan and other coastal areas, or in the mainland, their caps are generally green, cyan and white. Headdress is the most typical and characteristic clothing of Hui Nationality. Since Islam cloth is white, Hui people regard white as the cleanest and most pleasing color. White, green and black are the main colors of clothing and crown.
Blue waistcoats are a common fashion for both men and women. Men especially like to wear a vest outside the shirt, forming a sharp contrast, making the shirt looks pure, fresh, elegant and solemn. When the cold winter comes, they wear overalls or leather vests to add comfort and warmth. Hui people living in the cold mountain areas like to wear furs, leather clothes and clothes made from the skins of old sheep.
Customs of Marriage
The marriage of the Hui is bound by Islam, just like that of the other nine Muslim peoples in China. Muhammad once said: "the institution of marriage is governed by me, and anyone who does not follow my rules will not be considered a follower of mine." "Therefore, all Hui marriages must follow the relevant rules of Islam and they should regard their marriage as the holy will of Allah. Their marriage should be allowed by both parties and subject to a voluntary decision. Before the wedding ceremony, the betrothal gifts should be conducted with the help of parents and a matchmaker, and all procedures should be in accordance with Islamic regulations.
The main festivals of the Hui people are Lesser Bairam, Corban Festival and the Mawlid an-Nabi.
Throughout the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, men older than 12 and women older than 9 will fast, which means they can't eat anything from sunrise to sunset. Little Byram is celebrated on the first day of October and lasts for three days. Friends and relatives will have a selection of beef and mutton, as well as their favorite scones.
Corban Festival is on the tenth day of last month. In the morning of the festival, they don't eat breakfast. After visiting the mosque, they slaughter cows and share them with poor families and relatives. Cattle are not allowed to be sold on this day.
Hua'er is a kind of Hui folk legend, especially popular in Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai and other places. During the festival and in the sixth month of the year, there is a big party where people will sing happily for six days.